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Saturday, 21 March 2020

Debian 10: Minimal Installation with Screenshots

How to Minimal Install Debian 10 Server

In this article, you will learn how to perform Debian 10 minimal installation with screenshots and step by step guide.

Debian also known as Debian GNU/Linux is a Linux distribution composed of free and open source software, developed by community supported Debian project, which was established by Ian Murdock on August 16, 1993. Debian is one of the oldest distribution based on Linux Kernel. (Courtesy: Wikipedia)

Ubuntu is the most famous Linux distribution now-a-days, is also derived from Debian Project.

If you are looking for installation of other Linux distros, then you may look at following articles.

How to Minimal Install Debian 10 Server

To learn about the in depth architecture of Linux operating system and working of background processes, you should read How Linux Works, 2nd Edition: What Every Superuser Should Know by Brian Ward.

 

Table of Contents:

 

Environment Specification:

We have provisioned a KVM virtual machine with following specification.

  • CPU - 3.4 Ghz (2 cores)
  • Memory - 2 GB
  • Storage - 20 GB

 

Debian Minimal Installation:

Debian is free and open source software, therefore it is available for download from Debian Project website.

After downloading the Debian ISO, attach it in DVDROM of your server and turn on the virtual machine.

01-debian-install-menu

On boot from Debian ISO, a boot menu will be displayed with different options.

Since, we are going to install Debian server in Graphical mode, therefore select "Graphical install" option and press <ENTER>.

02-debian-install-select-language

Installer is now asking for the language being used during the installation process. The same language will be used as the default language for the installed Debian server.

Select your preferred language and click on Continue.

03-debian-install-select-location

Installer is now asking for a location, that will be used to set the regional settings of your Linux operating system.

Select your geographical location and press Continue.

04-debian-install-select-keyboard

This time you need to provide the Keyboard layout.

Choose the preferred keyboard and click Continue.

05-debian-install-loading-components

Installer is now loading installation components from Debian ISO/CD.

06-debian-install-set-hostname

After loading installation components, the Linux installer displays the network configuration screen.

Provide the desired hostname for your Debian server and click on Continue.

07-debian-install-set-domainname

To setup a FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name), you are also required to provide a domain name.

Provide your domain name here and press Continue.

08-debian-install-set-root-password

You are now at the "Setup users and passwords" screen.

Set a strong password for the root superuser and click  Continue.

09-debian-install-admin-user-fullname

Debian installer is now asking to create an administrative user that will be used as an alternative of the default root user due to the security measures.

Provide the full name of your desired user account and click on Continue.

10-debian-install-admin-username

Now provide the username for this administrative user account and click Continue.

11-debian-install-admin-user-password

Finally set a strong password for this administrative user account and click on Continue.

12-debian-install-set-timezone

Choose your desired time zone and press Continue.

13-debian-install-create-partitions

Installer is now asking to setup the partitions for installing the Debian operating system.

There are two types of configuration options available here.

  • "Guided" options are used for automatic configurations based on some predefined templates.
  • "Manual" option is used to configure each partition settings i.e. type, size, etc.

Select the "Guided - use entire disk" option and click on Continue.

14-debian-install-select-disk

Choose a disk on which you want to create the required partitions and click on Continue.

15-debian-install-partition-scheme

Choose your preferred partitioning scheme and click Continue.

For better space management and security, we recommend that you should select "Separate /home, /var, and /tmp partitions" option.

16-debian-install-partition-summary

Based on the selection, Installer creates a partition layout and asking for any further customization in the partition layout.

Select "Finish partioning and write changes to disk" and click Continue.

17-debian-install-partition-confirm

Installer is asking for the confirmation to write changes to disk.

Select "Yes" option and click on Continue.

18-debian-install-base-system

Debian Server is now installing its base system.

19-debian-install-network-mirror

Installer is now configuring network mirrors for downloading and installing Debian software packages.

Select "Yes" option and click on Continue.

20-debian-install-network-mirror-location

Choose the location nearest to your geographical existence to help the Installer in setting up the closest network mirror for your Linux server.

Click on Continue.

21-debian-install-mirror-archive

Select a mirror archive from the list provided by the Debian installer and click on Continue.

22-debian-install-set-proxy-server

If your Linux machine uses a proxy server to access the Internet then provide its address and port here. Otherwise leave the field blank and click on Continue.

23-debian-install-configure-apt

Installer is configuring apt package manager now.

24-debian-install-popularity-contest

Choose the "No" option and click on Continue.

25-debian-install-select-software

Select the software options that you would like to install.

Since, You are installing a minimal Debian environment therefore, you should only selecting "SSH Server" and "standard system utilities".

Click on Continue.

26-debian-install-software

Setup is now performing debian minimal installation.

27-debian-install-grub

Installer is asking to install GRUB (Grand Unified Bootloader) on the MBR (Master Boot Record) of the disk in use.

Select "Yes" option and click on Continue.

28-debian-install-mbr-disk

Select the disk to install GRUB and click on Continue.

29-debian-installing-grub

Setup process is installing GRUB now.

30-debian-install-completion

Debian minimal installation has been completed successfully.

Click on Continue to restart the system.

31-debian-install-grub-menu

After restart, you are now at the GRUB Boot Menu.

Select the option "Debian GNU/Linux" and press <ENTER>.

32-debian-install-cli-login

Finally you are at the CLI (Command Line Interface) login prompt of Debian Server.

33-debian-install-bash-prompt

Login as the administrative user that you have created during Debian minimal installation.

Your Debian minimal installation has been completed successfully.

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